Bölge Planlama ve Türkiye'de Mekansal Planlama Yaklaşımları

Prof. Dr. Nuriye GARİPAĞAOĞLU 

Planning; is regarded as an arrangement and development program prepared in the most general sense to ensure that any part of a whole can be used in the best possible way for the possibilities of the natural environment and for the benefit of society. The planning area that constitutes any of these whole parts may be a village, a town, a city, a locality, a region, a country, even a group of countries, or a basin unit. The possibilities of the region are expressed primarily by the potential of the land that it possesses. The determination of the potential of the region is a leading, priority work for proper planning and regulation. Regional development and planning, also known as regional science, is an interdisciplinary science. It establishes a relationship between the science of the social and economic structure and the science of the place. The fact that it has a complex structure makes it necessary for many sciences to be closely related.

Analyzing the geographical environment and the communities living there, in the process of determining the potential of the environment, needs, problems and proposals for solutions; From the beginning to the end, there are many scientists with planning knowledge. In other words, in regional planning, planning is science; needs data and research methods of many sciences. In fact, planning connects with geography more than science branches. Because many disciplines of geography belong to physical, human and economic geography; the nature of the research and the content of the research topics, planning science, methodology and providing data. Field surveys and observations are activities that will provide the most basic materials of the plan. The issues to be taken into consideration in planning and the data to be gathered overlap with regional geography studies in particular. From this point of view, regional studies in terms of planning are similar to geography monographs. This is an indication of how tightly it is between planning and geography. Because of their proximity to the subject and methodology, even those who define planning work as geography of the future or applied geography. Much of the preparation work required for planning is provided by geographers who conduct research in the region, so that the physical-human structures of the spaces, the relations between man and space, and the characteristics of various human-economic activities are determined. In the limitation of the planning area, complying with the geographical principles is a necessity in many respects. The geographer, who has a close connection with planning studies, is a synthesizer like him who is closest to him and not being a full planner.

This study was prepared primarily for the students of "Geography Department" to perceive the interrelationships and interactions of the region planning, geographical location and also to contribute to the identification of the planning studies carried out at different scales in Turkey. Attention has also been paid to the fact that researchers working in the other side, interested in spatial planning, working in different branches of science, are of interest.


As long as it is beneficial to the students, the students and all the readers ...


Türkiye Ortam Sorunları Coğrafyası

 Prof. Dr. Nuriye GARİPAĞAOĞLU

In Turkey, which is a part of the world ecosystem as a whole, the quality of life depends on environment (environment) science. Nowadays, many geographies, including geography, are gathered under the roof of ecology. Geography has developed a "geographical ecology" approach to the world ecosystem or a smaller space that is interested in various environmental problems. In such an approach, the environment is viewed as a whole and various ecosystem classifications are made by distinguishing ecologically differentiated areas. The fact that geographical ecology has a separate and important place in the detection and solution of environmental problems has long necessitated geographers to closely deal with environmental problems. Climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation, pressure and wind, topographic elements such as slope, elevation and elevation, physical conditions known as iltological and structural features, pedological and vegetative characteristics and human environment such as population, settlement and economic activities; As well as the determinants of ecological foundations, are also the reasons for the change in the ecosystem.

Today, the problems of the world ecosystem related to the environment are very diverse, and the impact shares in the ecosystem are very different. In particular, the environment and problems that they stand in excess of the developed countries are quite new to Turkey. In this work, Turkey was chosen as the ecological environment and the atmospheric, water and air ecosystems were studied separately and their problems were tried to be determined. The origins and geographical distribution of environmental problems in Turkey are quite different. The resulting problem may be of natural or human origin, as well as being influenced by both. However, in the work, moreover, human origins have been the basis for studying in order to limit existing problems. Natural origins (earthquakes, mass movements, floods, avalanche, etc.) were not evaluated. Human events such as rapid population growth, rapid and distorted urbanization, industrialization, expansion of agricultural lands and agricultural technologies play an important role in the degradation of ecological balance in Turkey.

Because of the nature of the work, and because the work has an interdisciplinary quality, it can not be examined in the same scope. In fact, some issues have been more limited and have been transacted with a lot of exploitation from related sources. In spite of all these, the whole environment of Turkey and its problems have been taken care to be introduced according to ecosystems. This study, which is based on the results of many studies of different branches of science and the results of official data, was prepared primarily to contribute to the students of "Geography Department" to perceive the ecological conditions and problems of Turkey. In addition, attention has been paid to the carrying of a resource qualification that can be used by other professionals who are interested in Turkey's environmental problems.


Türkiye Hava Kirliliği ve Coğrafi Esasları

Prof. Dr. Nuriye Garipağaoğlu


As is known, air pollutants can be formed from a wide variety of gases as well as particulate matter. However, when air pollution in the cities of Turkey is determined, only sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter in the form of smoke can be reached from these pollutants.


Air pollution is known to have adverse effects on human health and all other living things, climate events and many substances. In addition, since pollution in any ecosystem is transmitted to other ecosystems by circulation, a polluted city can also pollute water and soil at the same time. The air pollution of the cities, which had been resolved in the developed countries of the world in the 1960s, continued to increase in the cities of Turkey. While affecting many factors of air pollution in the cities of Turkey, especially physical and geographical conditions such as unplanned and rapid urbanization movements, wrong choice of location of the industry, pollutants from all kinds of waste materials and fumes, places of cities and industrial establishments The factors are decisive in the first place. In this respect, it should be known that it will not be enough to take preventive measures against air pollution without considering the physical environment conditions.


In this study, based on the data from 1990 to 2000, it was determined that air pollution was still continuing in a majority of the cities of Turkey. It is understood that the pollutants of the atmosphere are mostly from domestic warming, industrial and traffic origin. The importance ratings of pollutants can vary from one to the other, depending on the characteristics of the cities.



   Ulaş Havzasının Coğrafi Etüdü





This study aims at evaluating Ulas Basin in a geographical perspective and analyzing natural environment conditions and human activities in relation to each other. Içla Basin is a geographically unexplored field. Because of this reason, physical environment conditions are evaluated firstly and then, Human activities, geographical correlation principle. Thus, the problems caused by the physical environmental conditions of the region and the reflections of these on the human and economic structure have been tried to be determined together with certain solutions.






 Marmara Depreminin (17 Ağustos 1999) Yalova Şehrine Etkileri

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akif CEYLAN

The Marmara Earthquake, which took place due to the North Anatolian Fault, affected a very wide geographical area including the city of Yalova; The death of many people, the injury, the destruction of thousands of buildings, and significant economic loss. Therefore, in various publications Marmara Earthquake was mentioned as "century disaster" and it was accepted as one of the greatest natural disasters of Turkey's history.

During the Republican era and especially after the 1970s, the city of Yalova, which entered a rapid development period, was greatly influenced by Marmara Earthquake; Population, settlement and economic maintenance. When the effects of Marmara Earthquake are evaluated as a whole, Constituted a major break point in the city's development process. Undoubtedly, the effects of depression will continue for many years in the development of the city.

In the first part of this work reflecting the effects of the Marmara earthquake, the general physical geographical characteristics of Yalova's surroundings and the human and economic geography of the city are emphasized. The second part deals with the population of the depreciated city, the third with the settlement area of the city, the fourth with the economic life of the city and the last part gives information about the major environmental problems and the precautions taken.

Şehir Coğrafyası Açısından Bir Araştırma: Alaşehir

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akif CEYLAN

Cities are one of the greatest works of human beings. Relations between human beings and the natural environment provide cities with the opportunity to continue their existence and development as much as they are regular. Alasehir, which is the subject of the study, is one of the cities which has a long development process and continues its existence for more than two thousand years thanks to the favorable environment provided by the geography. Alaşehir, which has witnessed many civilizations since its foundation and has been exposed to great disasters from time to time, has various natural and human possibilities that will continue to develop its existence after this.

In the book, it is aimed to examine the establishment, development and functional properties of Alasehir. The study is divided into three parts outside the entrance section. In the first part, the natural environment features of Alasehir and its immediate surroundings were briefly explained. In the second part, the establishment of the city and its development process are divided into various periods. In the third part, the functional properties of Alasehir and the distribution of function areas are given. In addition, various problems were discussed in the processing of the topics and some suggestions were made about them.


Ege Adalarında Türkçe Yer Adları Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akif CEYLAN

The names of places used in many areas, especially daily life, are one of the important cultural values of the nations. This character of the place names is related to the fact that they are very familiar with the characteristics of the geography inhabited by the nations. Because place names gain authenticity in proportion to the well-recognized place and create a cultural value.

The Aegean islands in the book are located in the Mediterranean region where the oldest cultures of the world are located. This area, where many cultures are intertwined, constitutes an important part of Turkish cultural geography. Undoubtedly, at the beginning of cultural values comes place names that give place to identity. In this work, Turkish names of Aegean islands, Turkish place names in the islands have been tried to be identified, to be classified, and to give some descriptive information about the root and meaning of some. However, some names do not have a clear explanation of the origin and meaning of the names, and some information can not be precisely understood. This is a feature of the work being done.

Manisa İlinde Yer Değiştiren Yerleşmeler

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akif CEYLAN

Thousands of settlements in different countries, such as cities, towns, villages and neighborhoods in our country, have had to change their original place for various reasons. If there are few numbers compared to the scope and importance of the subject, some publications have been made within the scope of articles and papers, which deal with the settlements that have changed in different ways. It was aimed to make a significant contribution to the geography of the settlement with this study, in which 96 settlements displaced in Manisa province were systematically studied.

Apart from the book entry, three sections are separated. In the first part natural, in the second part settlements that have been replaced by human causes are dealt with. In the third part, the selection of the place in the displaced settlements, the settlement plans, the building materials, the types of houses, the works of the upper and lower buildings, administrative, cultural and social facilities, historical and cultural works on the old settlement area, Lines.

Myriokephalon Zaferi

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Akif CEYLAN- Yrd. Doç. Dr. Adnan ESKİKURT

In the book, the place of the Battle of the Myriokephalon, one of the important events of the Middle Ages, was dealt with. The work on this war, which is one of the important existence struggles of the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia, was prepared by taking advantage of the possibilities offered by history and geography. The location of the Battle of Myriokephalon, which Turkey Seljuks left with victory on September 17, 1176, is of great importance to Turkish history. Because the desire of the Byzantine Empire to re-dominate Anatolia ended with this victory.

The determination of the position at which such an important event took place is a matter that has not been solved for centuries. Although various domestic and foreign researchers have stopped at different positions, no definite view has been reached on the place of the war until today. By the help of Byzantine Kinnamos, Syriac Mihael and Smbat Sparapet and some chronicles of the crusades and the guidance of the information there was a battle in May and August 2014 between the Beyşehir and Konya regions (in the vicinity of the bowels, Derbent and Kef straits) It has come to the conclusion that the place must be searched in a different area.

The findings that the Myriokephalon column, which gave its name to the war, were identified with the name Meldinis / Melitene in the Middle Ages and in the form of Hisar-i Meldos subject to Aksehir during the Ottoman period constituted one of the main points of the study. Thus, this information, which overlaps with the geographical determinations on the way of illuminating the subject, has been presented to the world of science by studying as a different view.

Hatay İli'nin Su Potansiyeli ve Sürdürülebilir Yönetimi

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Atilla KARATAŞ

Initially there was water. The first living organisms were found in water. While the first people settled in the water, the civilization was shaped by water. The man who gave life to the water in every puddle found life with water but could not be saint like water. Although the blue planet wants to change the color, the aquatic life does not know the right to life. In return, water continued to purify and re-purify the body of human beings, which had been polluted with all the power, by showing at every opportunity what saint was. Water has always been saint and clean thanks to the movement that it is in. The water that washed the feet of a rowing prisoner in the name of this cycle of water, years later found in golden vessels in the rulers' sofras.

In this study, which is the result of a study and planning on a regional scale, in order to emphasize the importance of water as the main building stone of life organisms and living organisms, the potential in Hatay and the potential sustainable consumption of the most basic necessities that are deserved by all beings are discussed. The content of the work was evaluated under four main headings. In the first chapter, the importance of water is emphasized and distribution of water potential in Turkey and in the world is emphasized and the concept of water management and the evolution of water management concept are examined. The general geographical characteristics of Hatay, which constitutes the spatial dimension of working in the second part, are discussed. It is aimed to create an infrastructure for easier understanding of the contents of the following sections. In the third chapter, a systematic breakdown of data on Hatay's water presence was made under the headings of rivers, lakes, resources, mineral waters, Mediterranean and underground waters. The fourth section focuses on the problems encountered in assessing Hatay water potential and how to address these issues from the perspective of sustainable management. The essence has been appreciated for the existence of a water potential, and it has come to the conclusion that basin-based sustainable management is the right solution for solving existing water issues.

III. Ulusal Jeomorfoloji Sempozyumu

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Atilla KARATAŞ

It is obvious how strong the geographers' connections with the geomorphology are, by adopting the spatial analysis method and including numerous analytical studies. The literature on principles, perspectives and working methods of geomorphology and interpreted empirical studies show that geographers make very important contributions to the development of geomorphological planning and application area in both institutional, theoretical and application areas.

While the assumption is that modern technological developments have reduced the difficulties of the "geographical environment", this attitude is essentially indifferent to the struggle between human and natural conditions. Emergency emerging from the necessity of the development of the countries that have collected the 2/3 of the war and the humanitarian war that has gone beyond the limit of tolerance in the industrialized and urbanized countries and the environmental pollution and harms requires better recognition of the ecological environment. This issue, which is now expressed in the form of protection and regulation of the environment, has become the responsibility of the responsible managers. At this point, the task of geographers is to search for solutions with National Geomorphological Symposiums and similar organizations, and to give / announce the responsibilities that will set new policies on basic information. 

Hydrographic Planning of Karasu Stream Basin

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Atilla KARATAŞ

The study that investigated the Karasu Stream Basin situated between the eastern slopes of Amanos Mountains in the south of Turkey and western slopes of Kurt Mountains and which corresponds to the northern segment of East African Rift Valley undertakes the hydrographic planning of the basin composed of Turkish and Syrian land. Geographical viewpoints and holistic approach can be observed in each stage of the project in line with sustainability principle based on human and natural environment and the most accurate use which will provide the highest benefit for both human and natural environment was sought as opposed to focusing on the most economic benefits which is usually common in integrated basin management. The first three sections of the study which was designed in three main sections mainly deals with systemization of the data and obtaining a strong database in terms of measurements and analyses while the third section deals with hydrographic planning of the basin based on the data base thus supported. As a result, the study which aimed to get one step closer to ideal basin planning included a geographical viewpoint and a more encompassing perspective to basin management issue that has multi-disciplinary characteristics. Interpreting and planning water resources which are variable and have multi component elements by nature can only be possible through the geographical perspective which allows blending and accounting for all the elements of natural environment. 

Siyasi Coğrafya İnsan ve Mekân Yönetimi

Doç. Dr. Hamza AKENGİN

In the past, geography has always been associated with war and conquest, almost as "science that meets the needs of the soldiers". During the time of discovery, geographers worked as a discovery branch of colonialism. Nowadays, political geography has gained a wider scope and meaning and spread. While making use of political geography in the sense of the geographical basis of international problems, it can be approached with a considerable political point of view to various subjects of human (and economic) geography, and even to every subject.

Political geography and geopolitics are a very popular area in the western countries, and the number of publications is rapidly increasing in these issues. The maps used for the topics covered in this study can be considered original for those interested in the subject. The content of this work titled "Political Geography: People and Space Management" which is prepared for the courses of Political Geography is composed of the current topics and therefore it is aimed to address to the general readers in many fields including history, politics, diplomacy and sociology besides geographers, It is thought to gain a point of view.


Türkiye Fiziki Coğrafyası

Doç. Dr. Hamza AKENGİN

It is possible to understand the possibilities and problems that our country possesses but to understand the physical geography conditions it possesses and the humanities that these conditions shape. Geography is one of the general cultural courses in the teaching process, starting from primary school to university. In particular, the geography subjects required by the program applied at secondary schools are being tried to be taught in an interdisciplinary approach within the Social Studies course. It is known that there are some problems with this. These are some of the problems, which information, how and in what way. It is known that the analysts of this problem have shaped the program. However, the most important contribution that we academicians can make in this regard is to shape the content of the Geography lessons in the Social Studies Teacher Programs in line with the needs of the Social Studies Teacher Program. This work titled Physical Geography of Turkey; It has been tried to be shaped by taking into consideration the needs of the Social Studies Teacher Program. In addition, this work; KPSS is thought to have a content that will meet the needs of candidates in general culture and geography field examinations.


Hikâyelerle Sosyal Bilgiler Öğretimi

Doç. Dr. Hamza AKENGİN

The social science lesson, which is very important for the individual's success in life, is often described as a boring lesson based on memorization. Sometimes it is understood that the topics that are included are made with such teaching methods and techniques. It is known that the world of science is in search of "how to teach effective social studies" in order to rescue social science lessons from these prejudices and reshape them in accordance with the mission they undertake in citizenship education. "Teaching Social Studies in Stories" has emerged as a result of the desire to add a new brick to the development of effective social studies teaching. Stories Teaching Social Studies In accordance with the "Literature Based Social Studies Teaching" approach, emphasizing the characteristics of the stories that are the most effective literary products in the process of teaching social studies, they emphasize the features that have a "technical" structure while teaching the stories given as examples in the learning-teaching process and their skills It is thought to have a literary character in terms of association.

This work is a source document for lessons related to "Oral and Written Literature Review in Social Studies" course and "Children's Literature" in Social Studies Teacher Education program. It is also a guide for social studies teachers in the process of gaining the achievements, skills and values in the 6th and 7th grade Social Studies Curriculum.


Genel Fiziki Coğrafya

Doç. Dr. Hamza AKENGİN

Humankind has been struggling with nature since the day it started to operate on the world stage. Especially after the industrial revolution, the intervention of the human being in nature and natural environment has gained a great speed and momentum. Nature, as a consequence of these interventions, pays heavily for the deterioration of natural equilibrium, such as earthquakes, landslides, avalanche, floods and floods, acid rain and illnesses resulting from degradation of ecological balance.

The decayed natural balance can not be easily reconstructed. In addition, while the world population is constantly increasing, the area of the blacks on earth, which is the place where the human beings are operating, does not change at all. Therefore, the place where the human activities are carried out must be well protected.


İstanbul'un Kapısı - Sultanbeyli Tarih

Doç. Dr. Cemalettin ŞAHİN

The conquest of Aydos Castle is one of the most critical and important victories in the process that led to the conquest of Istanbul. This conquest completed the conquest of the Kocaeli Peninsula, and in this respect, entered the Ottoman domination of Üsküdar. On the one hand, the castle witnessed the collapse of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire in the other sense, and the process of passing from the state to the empire. It is also important that this process has become one of the most important actors. History of the Sultanbeyli District formed around Aydos Castle Had a period of stagnation up to the hundredth century and since then has experienced the change and transformation of the empire as a whole.

This work in your hand has aimed to take the Sultanbeyli's history starting from the construction of Aydos Kalesi to date. Sultanbeyli's historical continuity from the day to the present day, this work, physical and human geography has a rich richness in the place.


 Üniversitelerin Şehirleşmeye Etkileri

Prof. Dr. Sevil SARGIN

This study is aimed to investigate the effects of Süleyman Demirel University founded in 1992 on the urbanization process of Isparta. After 1950, when the urbanization movements accelerated in Turkey, it became important as the period when new universities started to be established. Many new universities have been established since 1950 in our country where only three universities are located, two in Istanbul and one in Ankara. Almost all of the universities that were founded in 1992 were established in medium-sized cities and have been important influences on the socio-economic life of these cities from the day they were established. In this context, in this study, Süleyman Demirel University, one of the universities established in 1992, tried to reveal the effects of the Isparta city on the socio-economic life. For this purpose, firstly the concept of city and urbanization is emphasized, the urbanization processes and problems in Turkey are discussed, and the development of universities in the same period is examined. Later on, the physical and human characteristics of Isparta, our study area, and the 14-year development of Süleyman Demirel University have been revealed. The most important phase of the work is the removal of the profile of the university, student, academic and administrative staff that influences urbanization and even urbanization, and the phase of anticipation and trends of this population. At this stage, these people who have influence on the development of the city have tried to measure the expectations from the city, the relations with the city and the need to meet the needs of the city. In addition, the view of the tradesmen as a representative of the city people was evaluated, and it was tried to show how this section was influenced by the existence of the university. In all these stages, the information, opinions and perceptions given by the people were used, the common approaches of each section were sought and the priority problems of the city that produced the service demanded by the university were analyzed and solutions were suggested. As it is known, the fact that the subjects covered by the human geography are affected by social environment, physical environment, economic, psychological and administrative factors and has a complex structure lead us to establish relations with many disciplines. However, it is a fact that the events are explained in terms of geographical method and purpose. In this study, great care has been taken and evaluation of the obtained data has been performed.


 Türkiye'nin Suç Coğrafyası

Prof. Dr. Sevil SARGIN



Crime, social, economic, political, physical and psychological conditions and the interaction of geographical factors is a consequence. Since a crime is a geographical space, the relationship between crime and space is important. The features that form the place can appear on different forms of crime. Not only natural geographical factors but also human geographical factors can affect crime.

In this study, the number of crimes committed against property and persons committed in the service area of police in Turkey has been analyzed according to years and illiterate distribution has been made. In this context, it is evident that urban centers are guilty of crime, as population and other urban functions are intensified areas, social control is weakening in these places, and important opportunities for criminals occur. This causes cities and social capital to weaken except for economic losses. In Turkey, the number of crimes committed in cities is continuously increasing due to socio-economic and social factors as well as the urbanization rate and population growth in cities.


 Türkiye'de Başlıca Ağaç Türlerinin Coğrafi Yayılışları, Ekolojik ve Floristik Özellikleri

Prof. Dr. Nurten GÜNAL

The aim of this work is to introduce, introduce, spread, ecological and floristic features of the main tree species naturally grown in Turkey in terms of plant geography. As it is known, there is not yet a work that both introduces the species of trees in our country and examines their distribution, ecological and floristic features geographically. Based on this need in the field of plant geography, the basis of this work is based mainly on the results of field studies and observations we have made in plant geography since 1980.

The continent is handled in two chapters following the introduction of the main lines of the features carried by our country in terms of forest formation. The first section is divided into coniferous trees, which make up about 55% of the forests in Turkey, and the second part is divided into broad-leaved trees.


Yukarı Gediz Havzasının Bitki Coğrafyası

Prof. Dr. Nurten GÜNAL

The Upper Gediz Basin is located in Western Anatolia, the Inner West Anatolian part of Aegean Region. The Upper Gediz Basin, which covers most of Gördes-Usak region, is limited to Demirci (1595 m), Simav (1799 m), and Şahane (2120 m) mountains, which range from 1500 to 2,100 m from the north. The basin where Murat Dağı (2309 m) is located at the highest points of Western Anatolia in the North East, Turkmen Dağı (1487 m) and Çomaklı Dağ (1201 m) rising from the west to the valleys of Gördes and Demirci teas, Elmadağ (1760 m) Kazdağ (1227 m) and Kışladağ (1298 m) are surrounded by mountains. The middle part of the basin is a wavy plateau with an elevation of 600-800 m. The area of the examination area, which opened southwest with a slope towards the Aegean Sea, is about 7800 km². It is affected by the transition climate between the Mediterranean, Marmara and Central Anatolia climates in terms of natural vegetation. The Upper Gediz Basin is a region that has different characteristics in terms of distribution of plant species and plant communities.


Türkiye'nin Ulaşım Coğrafyası

Prof. Dr. Nuran TAŞLIGİL

This book, which was first published in 1999, has received great attention and has been exhausted. As in the past, there have been many developments both in the world and in Turkey in the area of transportation as it is in every area. For this reason I did not consider it appropriate to republish this book in the form of the first edition. I edited the data at a limited time and reprinted it. I am also aware that it will not be enough for the changes made in this edition. However, I found it appropriate to republish the book due to filling the gap in the field of 'Transportation Geography'.

The book also briefly discusses other transportation routes such as pipelines, inland waterway transportation, as well as sea, rail, land and air transport.


Türkiye Ziraatının Problemleri

 Prof. Dr. Nuran TAŞLIGİL

Until the 1980s, agriculture, the most important economic activity in our country, has lost this characteristic since the mentioned date. Despite the rapid increase in our population in recent years, the fact that food production can not be increased in the same way has made Turkey a food importer country with few products.

The first part of the book, which is composed of three chapters, is the general characteristics of Turkish agriculture. The second part contains the problems of agriculture and the third part covers the problems of animal husbandry.


Güneybatı Asya Ortadoğu Ülkeler Coğrafyası

Prof. Dr. Nurten GÜNAL

Arş. Gör. Dr. Yasemin ÖZDEMİR



Bölge Planlama ve Türkiye'de Mekansal Planlama Yaklaşımları

Prof. Dr. Nuriye GARİPAĞAOĞLU 

Planlama; en genel anlamı ile bir bütünün herhangi bir parçasını, doğal ortamın imkanlarına en uygun ve toplum açısından en yararlı şekilde kullanılmasını sağlamak amacıyla hazırlanan bir düzenleme ve gelişme programı olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu bütünün parçalarından herhangi birini oluşturan planlama alanı ise,  köy, kasaba, şehir, yöre olabileceği gibi, bir bölge, bir ülke hatta ülkeler topluluğu, ya da bir havza ünitesi olabilir. Bölgenin imkanları ise, öncelikle sahip olduğu arazi potansiyeli ile ifade edilir. Bölge potansiyelinin tespiti, uygun planlama ve düzenleme için yönlendirici, öncelikli bir çalışmadır. Bölge bilimi olarak da bilinen bölgesel gelişme ve planlama, disiplinlerarası bir bilim dalıdır. Sosyal ve ekonomik yapıya ait bilimlerle mekana yönelik bilimler arasında ilişki kurar. Kompleks bir yapıya sahip olması, birçok bilim dalıyla sıkı ilişkiler kurmasını da gerekli kılmıştır.

Coğrafi ortam ve onun üzerinde yaşayan toplumların tahlil edilmesi, ortamın potansiyelinin, ihtiyaçlarının, sorunlarının ve çözüm önerilerinin belirlenmesi sürecinde; baştan sona, planlama bilimi ile birlikte birçok bilim dalı yer almaktadır. Başka bir deyişle, bölge planlamada, planlama bilim dalı; birçok bilim dalının veri ve araştırma metotlarına ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Esasında planlama,  bilim dalları arasından, daha çok coğrafya ile ilişki kurar. Çünkü coğrafyanın fiziki, beşeri ve ekonomik coğrafyaya ait birçok disiplini; özelliği ve araştırma konularının içeriği gereği, planlama bilimine, gerek metodolojik ve gerekse veri sağlama yönleriyle birinci sırada yer alırlar. Saha araştırmaları ve gözlemler, planın en temel malzemelerini sağlayacak faaliyetlerdir. Planlamada dikkate alınacak konular ve toplanması gereken veriler, özellikle bölgesel coğrafya çalışmalarıyla örtüşmektedir.  Bu bakımdan, plancılık açısından bölge incelemeleri, coğrafya monografilerine benzemektedir. Bu durum, planlama ile coğrafya arasında ne kadar sıkı bağlar olduğunun göstergesidir. Konu ve metodoloji açaısından yakınlıkları nedeniyle planlama işlerini, geleceğin coğrafyası veya uygulamalı coğrafya olarak tanımlayanlar dahi olmuştur. Planlama için gerekli hazırlık çalışmalarının büyük bir kısmı, bölge araştırmaları yapan coğrafyacılar tarafından sağlanmakta, böylece mekanların fiziki-beşeri yapıları, insan ile mekan arasındaki ilişkiler ve çeşitli beşeri-ekonomik faaliyetlerin vasıfları belirlenmektedir. Planlama bölgesinin sınırlandırmasında, coğrafi prensiplere uyulması, birçok bakımdan bir zorunlulukdur.  Planlama çalışmaları ile sıkı bağlantısı olan coğrafyacı, tam bir plancı sayılmamakla birlikte ona en yakın ve onun gibi bir sentezcidir.

Bu çalışma, öncelikle “Coğrafya Bölümü” öğrencilerinin, bölge planlamanın, coğrafi mekanla karşılıklı ilişki ve etkileşimlerini algılamalarına ve ayrıca Türkiye’de farklı ölçeklerde yapılmış olan planlama çalışmalarını tanımalarına katkıda bulunmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Diğer taraftan çalışmanın, mekansal planlama ile ilgilenen, farklı bilim dallarında çalışma yapan araştırmacıların, ilgisini çekecek nitelikte olmasına da dikkat edilmiştir.

Çalışmanın, öğrencilere ve tüm okurlarına faydalı olması dileğiyle…




Türkiye Ortam Sorunları Coğrafyası

 Prof. Dr. Nuriye GARİPAĞAOĞLU

Bütünüyle dünya ekosisteminde ve onun bir parçası olan Türkiye'de hayat kalitesi, ortam (çevre) bilimine sıkı sıkıya bağlıdır. Günümüzde, coğrafya da dahil olmak üzere, birçok bilim dalı ekolojinin çatısı altında toplanmıştır. Coğrafya bilimi, dünya ekosisteminin ya da daha küçük bir mekanın çeşitli ortam sorunlarına karşı ilgi duyan "coğrafi ekoloji" yaklaşımını geliştirmiştir. Böyle bir yaklaşımda, ortam bir bütün olarak görülmekte ve ekolojik açıdan farklılaşmış alanlar ayırt edilerek, çeşitli ekosistem sınıflandırmaları yapılmaktadır. Coğrafi ekolojinin, ortamla ilgili sorunların tespitinde ve çözüm üretilmesinde, ayrı ve önemli bir yerinin olması, eskiden beri coğrafyacıların ortam sorunlarıyla yakından ilgilenmelerini zorunlu kılmıştır. Zaten sıcaklık, yağış, basınç, rüzgar gibi klimatolojik unsurlar, eğim, bakı ve yükselti gibi topoğrafik unsurlar, iltolojik ve yapısal özellikler, pedolojik ve vejetatif özellikler olarak bilinen fiziki ortam koşulları ile nüfus, yerleşme ve ekonomik etkinlikler gibi beşeri ortam koşulları; ekolojik temelin belirleyici unsurları oldukları gibi, ekosistemdeki değişimin de nedenleridir. 

Günümüzde dünya ekosisteminin ortamla ilgili olan sorunları, hem çok çeşitli, hem de ekosistemdeki etki payları çok farklıdır. Özellikle, gelişmiş ülkelerin üzerinde fazlasıyla durdukları ortam ve sorunları konuları, Türkiye için oldukça yenidir. Bu eserde, ekolojik ortam olarak Türkiye seçilmiş olup, atmosfer, su ve hava ekosistemleri ayrı ayrı incelenerek, sorunları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Türkiye'de mevcut ortam sorunlarının kökenleri ve coğrafi dağılışları bir hayli farklıdır. Ortaya çıkan sorun doğal ya da beşeri kökenli olabileceği gibi, her ikisinin tesirine de maruz olabilmektedir. Ancak eserde, mevcut sorunlara sınırlılık getirmek düşüncesiyle daha ziyade beşeri kökenliler çalışmaya esas teşkil etmiştir. Doğal kökenliler (deprem, kütle hareketleri, sel, çığ, vs.) değerlendirmeye alınmamıştır. Türkiye'de ekolojik dengenin bozulmasında, özellikle hızlı nüfus artışı, hızlı ve çarpık kentleşme, endüstrileşme, tarım alanlarının genişlemesi ve tarım teknolojileri gibi beşeri olaylar önemli rol oynamaktadır. 

İçeriği gereği, çalışmanın disiplinler arası bir nitelik de taşıması nedeniyle eserde her konu aynı kapsamda incelenememiştir. Hatta bazı konularda daha sınırlı kalınmış ve ilgili kaynaklardan fazlasıyla yararlanılarak, aktarmalar yapılmıştır. Bütün bunlara rağmen, bütünüyle Türkiye ortamının ve sorunlarının ekosistemlere göre tanıtılmasına özen gösterilmiştir. Farklı bilim dallarına ait birçok çalışmanın ve resmi verilerin sonuçlarına bağlı olarak ortaya çıkan bu çalışma, öncelikle "Coğrafya Bölümü" öğrencilerinin Türkiye'nin ekolojik koşullarını ve sorunlarını algılamalarına katkıda bulunmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Ayrıca Türkiye ortam sorunlarıyla ilgilenen diğer meslek mensuplarının da yararlanabilecekleri bir kaynak vasfı taşımasına da dikkat edilmiştir.   

This page updated by Geography on 04.03.2020 17:13:58